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Science (127 Books)


Works of Science are a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

 
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Kahea Loko

By: The Pacific American Foundation

Kahea Loko is "the call of the pond. " From the ocean currents surging through the stone-walled channels to the excited cries of haumana (students) discovering fishpond life, the loko ia (fishpond) calls to us in many ways. From the broad perspective of the ahupuaa (major land division), the loko ia helps us to appreciate the connection between land and sea and to experience the rhythm of tides and seasons. From an intimate perspective, the pond leads us to discover h...

"Let that which is unknown become known. " John Papa Ii (1959) Let us not allow the broken walls of the loko ia (fishponds) to separate us from that which was known and practiced in the past. The foundations of the walls are still evident, as are the wisdom and knowledge of our kupuna. The reflections of the sun, moon, and stars upon our waters are as old as time. Let these be beacons of light to guide our haumana (students) to these ponds of knowledge. Let us help ...

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No Ke Kalaiaina (Political Economy)

By: Rev. Wm Richards

Ua haawi mai ke Akua i mea e waiwai ai na kanaka a pau. Ua haawi mai oia i ka aina kahi e ulu ai ka ai. Ua haawi mai oia i ka laau, i mea e paa ai na hale, i mea hoi e pono ai na hana he nui loa. Ua haawi mai no hoi oia i na mea ulu a pau, i mea e hooko ai i ka makemake o na kanaka. Ua haawi mai oia no kakou, i mau lima, a meka ikaika e lawelawe ai, a hooponopono i ka aina, a me na mea a pau e waiwai ai. Aka, i ka nohonaaupo ana o na kanaka, ua hune loa lakou. Aole lilo ...

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Spacetime Curvature Paradox Essay

By: Cres Huang

Space is in our hands and all around us. We have learned to manipulate matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, but never space. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe. It can not be disturbed. Space and time can not go together. Space has existence, time has not. Space is absolutely recyclable, never time. And, space is fundamental, it is independent from mass, energy, and everything else.

Space is fundamental, it is independent from mass, energy, and everything else. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe. It can not be disturbed, otherwise there would be no peace in whole universe. And, space and time can not go together. Space has existence, time has not. Space is absolutely recyclable, never time. Haven't we confused by looking too hard?

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Pitfall of Space Expansion

By: Cres Huang

Space is everywhere with us. It's in our hands. However, it's impossible to bent, stretch, compress, or doing anything with it. Expansion of the space would intertwine with many paradoxes that is beyond comprehension. We have learned to manipulating matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, however, never space.

If you are riding on a craft, it will not carry you away if you there is no friction between you and the craft. Space is completely frictionless. It has no surface, and can only be regarded as absolute zero viscosity. Expansion of the space, if possible, will not drag anything along. It would just flow through and zip away by itself.

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The Making of Black Hole And Galaxy

By: Cres Huang

A star is analogous to a constant nuclear explosion. Expelling particles would create the opposite imploding force. Under this constantly implosion, a star can reach it's limit of structure and explore, supernova. A massive star can transform into a high density body. The surface activities would radiate the frequency beyond our detection, a black hole. Even invisible, it is a massive black hole can create its' own super space cyclone. Other subsystems can be caught by t...

We see the similarity in galaxy, solar system, hurricanes, down to smallest vortex. We also see the self-similarity of life. I believe a black hole, even invisible, is a super star creates it's own super space storm. It's hyper intensity of activities on the surface is beyond our detection.

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The Making of Black Hole And Galaxy (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

A star is analogous to a constant nuclear explosion. Expelling particles would create the opposite imploding force. Under this constantly implosion, a star can reach it's limit of structure and explore, supernova. A massive star can transform into a high density body. The surface activities would radiate the frequency beyond our detection, a black hole. Even invisible, it is a massive black hole can create its' own super space cyclone. Other subsystems can be caught by t...

We see the similarity in galaxy, solar system, hurricanes, down to smallest vortex. We also see the self-similarity of life. I believe a black hole, even invisible, is a super star creates it's own super space storm. It's hyper intensity of activities on the surface is beyond our detection.

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The Making of Star and Solar System

By: Cres Huang

A super-sized planet can trigger nuclear reactions and become a star. The expelled particles embrace objects in it's path and create a space cyclone, Solar System. We might not realize that we are living in the wake of constant nuclear explosions.

Isn't the Solar System resemblance of a cyclone powered by the vortex force of the Sun in weightless space?

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The Making of Star and Solar System (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

A super-sized planet can trigger nuclear reactions and become a star. The expelled particles embrace objects in it's path and create a space cyclone, Solar System. We might not realize that we are living in the wake of constant nuclear explosions.

Isn't the Solar System resemblance of a cyclone powered by the vortex force of the Sun in weightless space?

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Why Quantum Jump Essay

By: Cres Huang

Atomic electron transition appears leaping from one energy level to another. The issue is, atomic particles are too small and too fast for our detectors to recognize their action and identity. I believe it is due to the sensors can only detect and register the repeated trajectory. Particle would have to revolving on the same orbit long enough. Otherwise, it would not trigger the reaction of the detectors. Transitional trajectory is short, and it does not repeat. It can ...

Inertia of particle would resist any sudden jump. Quantum jump is likely be the blind-spot of the observer. Electron would have to revolving on the same orbit long enough. Otherwise, it would not trigger the reaction of the detectors. We are unable to see it's transition trajectory. Hence, jump.

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The Making of Planet and Gravity

By: Cres Huang

Falling body experiments have shown gravity is not an attraction. Analogous to rolling a snow ball in space, objects in the path would be picked up. The larger the snow ball grows, the tighter it gets. Matter and the force of union would be incorporated. Dust particles build sand, then rock, and so forth, along with gravity. The force, or energy, is trapped within the structure. All joined elements share this center aiming potential, gravity. The coalition of mass...

Gravity is not attraction. It is push, squeeze, or compression. The gathering of mases build a body and it's force of coalition, gravity. It might feel weak on an object. However, gravity center is the most intensive mass and energy center of a planet. The coalition of mass and energy forms an activity center of building structures and emerging of a plant.

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The Refutation of Gravitational Attraction (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

Falling body experiments have shown us the gravitational acceleration is independent of composition, shape, size, and distance. However, attracting acceleration is dependent on composition, shape, size, and distance. Therefore: Gravity is not an attraction. Gravity is a contact force of all elements moving toward a target in uniform acceleration regardless of their differences in composition, shape, size, and distance. As any force, gravity can not exist withou...

Gravitational acceleration is independent of composition, shape, size, and distance. However, attracting is dependent on composition, shape, size, and distance. Therefore: Gravity is not a force of attraction. It is a contact force of all elements moving toward a target in uniform acceleration regardless of their differences in composition, shape, size, and distance; a concentrative potential. Objects move to minimum contact field would lost their concentrat...

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Event and Information (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

Our perception is the information of the physical events collected by our sensors. Observation is a special case of transportation of stream of packages of information. The order and interval of the arrival of signals would determine the perception of the observer. One important issue to consider is, not all packages are received by the observer. We can catch more packages with high-speed recorder, however, many mores are lost, not to mention there are packages of signa...

The issue is, sometime we can not separate the event and it's information, and even fooled by it.

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Event and Information

By: Cres Huang

Our perception is the information of the physical events collected by our sensors. Observation is a special case of transportation of stream of packages of information. The order and interval of the arrival of signals would determine the perception of the observer. One important issue to consider is, not all packages are received by the observer. We can catch more packages with high-speed recorder, however, many mores are lost, not to mention there are packages of signa...

The issue is, sometime we can not separate the event and it's information, and even fooled by it.

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The Refutation of Gravitational Attraction

By: Cres Huang

Falling body experiments have shown us the gravitational acceleration is independent of composition, shape, size, and distance. However, attracting acceleration is dependent on composition, shape, size, and distance. Therefore: Gravity is not an attraction. Gravity is a contact force of all elements moving toward a target in uniform acceleration regardless of their differences in composition, shape, size, and distance. As any force, gravity can not exist withou...

Gravitational acceleration is independent of composition, shape, size, and distance. However, attracting is dependent on composition, shape, size, and distance. Therefore: Gravity is not a force of attraction. It is a contact force of all elements moving toward a target in uniform acceleration regardless of their differences in composition, shape, size, and distance; a concentrative potential. Objects move to minimum contact field would lost their concentrat...

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Proposed Fundamental Principles

By: Cres Huang

The infinite dynamic of the universe is maintained by the fundamental principle; infinite, independent, identity, perfect recycle, coherent, and complement principle.

The environment (or surroundings) is the complement of an object, regardless of it's size, from fundamental particle to large complex structure of galaxy. It has to match precisely and absolutely when it's environment changes, and vise versa. Here the environment is defined as the rest of the universe other than the object itself. All three fundamental elements are able to return to original properties. However only space can be considered absolutely perfect. It is t...

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Proposed Civilization Scale

By: Cres Huang

A true civilization would coherent with the natural principles of the fundamental elements. Type 0: Parasitic. Type I: Mastery of energy. Type II: Mastery of energy and matter. It is easy to neglect happenings that may take decades or longer to surface for short-lived creatures. We don't even have a clear memory of longer than few millenniums back, do we ready look and prepare our future in millenniums ahead? It seems that no matter how hard the foreseeing ...

Type 0 civilization: Parasitic. Type I civilization: Mastery of energy. Type II civilization: Mastery of energy and matter.

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The Making of Planet and Gravity (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

Falling body experiments have shown gravity is not an attraction. Analogous to rolling a snow ball in space, objects in the path would be picked up. The larger the snow ball grows, the tighter it gets. Matter and the force of union would be incorporated. Dust particles build sand, then rock, and so forth, along with gravity. The force, or energy, is trapped within the structure. All joined elements share this center aiming potential, gravity. The coalition of mass...

Gravity is not attraction. It is push, squeeze, or compression. The gathering of mases build a body and it's force of coalition, gravity. It might feel weak on an object. However, gravity center is the most intensive mass and energy center of a planet. The coalition of mass and energy forms an activity center of building structures and emerging of a plant.

Read More
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Driving Force of Tectonic Plate

By: Cres Huang

Despite our progress, predicting the hazardous activities of lithosphere has been a long endeavor. The issue is, Earth's gravity is the inward force of keeping all thing tight to maintain it's spherical shape. Force of tectonic motion has to fight against the persisting gravity to push the crust from ocean floor to the top of mountain ranges. However, gravity can not be a pulling force, or tidal drag, of seismic activities. It is no attraction force has been shown by fa...

I don't believe the mantle convection can be the driving force. Instead, it is driven by gravity and centrifugal forces. Hot mantle can not raise without the gravity or centrifugal force to provide ascending buoyancy. And, cool mantle will not sink without the gravity. It is the same principle of hot air does not raise and cold air does not sink in zero gravity. Gravity force makes denser elements sink and lighter ones raise. On the other hand, centrifugal force works i...

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Driving Force of Tectonic Plate (Brief)

By: Cres Huang

Despite our progress, predicting the hazardous activities of lithosphere has been a long endeavor. The issue is, Earth's gravity is the inward force of keeping all thing tight to maintain it's spherical shape. Force of tectonic motion has to fight against the persisting gravity to push the crust from ocean floor to the top of mountain ranges. However, gravity can not be a pulling force, or tidal drag, of seismic activities. It is no attraction force has been shown by fa...

I don't believe the mantle convection can be the driving force. Instead, it is driven by gravity and centrifugal forces. Hot mantle can not raise without the gravity or centrifugal force to provide ascending buoyancy. And, cool mantle will not sink without the gravity. It is the same principle of hot air does not raise and cold air does not sink in zero gravity. Gravity force makes denser elements sink and lighter ones raise. On the other hand, centrifugal force works i...

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Selected Readings in Chinese Legal System

By: Dr. Xingan Li, Editor

The purpose of this book is to provide my students with after-class supplementary references. This book collected 20 articles written by prestigious experts of the world. They cover topics from fundamental theory, constitution and other branches of Chinese laws. Thanks to digitalization, all of these articles are re-printed here in full-text and almost in their original forms.

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