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Title: Consualia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mercatus+, Roman festivals, Opiconsivia, Equirria, October Horse
Collection: Ancient Chariot Racing, Ancient Roman Festivals, August Observances, December Observances, Fixed Holidays, July Observances
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Official name Consuales Ludi
Observed by Roman Republic,
Roman Empire
Type Ancient Roman
Celebrations Chariot racing
Observances Horses, Mules and Asses were adorned with garlands
Date 18 August, 15 December

The Consuales Ludi or Consualia was the name of two ancient Roman festivals in honor of Consus, a tutelary deity of the harvest and stored grain. Consuales Ludi were held on August 18,[1] at the time of harvest, and again on December 15, in connection with grain storage. The shrine of Consus was underground, it was covered with earth all year and was only uncovered for this one day. Mars, as a protector of the harvest, was also honored on this day, as were the Lares, the household gods that individual families held sacred.

During the celebration horses, mules, and asses were exempted from all labour, and were led through the streets adorned with garlands and flowers. Chariot races were held this day in the Circus Maximus, which included an odd race in which chariots were pulled by mules.

In Roman mythology, the Consulia was founded by Romulus as an occasion to gather his Sabine neighbors.[2]:1.9 When the community was assembled and in a state of drunken festivity, Romulus's men abducted the daughters of the Sabines to become their brides (see "The Rape of the Sabine Women").

There were also sacrifices to Consus on 7 July. Consus' feasts were followed by those of the related goddess Ops: the Opiconsivia on 25 August and the Opalia on 19 December.

According to Livy,[2]:1.9 the festival honors Neptune.


  1. ^ Plutarch. "Life if Romulus", in Plutarch's Lives, trans. Aubrey Stewart and Geoge Long. London and New York: George Bell and Sons, 1894. XV
  2. ^ a b Livy. The History of Rome by Titus Livius: The First Eight Books, trans. D. Spillan. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853.


  • H. H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (London: Thames and Hudson, 1981), 177-8, 181, 205, 207.
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