World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Lucaria

Article Id: WHEBN0001358723
Reproduction Date:

Title: Lucaria  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Furrinalia, Lucus, Mercatus+, Roman festivals, Battle of Grumentum
Collection: Ancient Roman Festivals, July Observances, Topography of Ancient Rome
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Lucaria

In ancient Roman religion, the Lucaria was a festival of the grove (Latin lucus) held July 19 and 21. The original meaning of the ritual was obscure by the time of Varro (mid-1st century BC), who omits it in his list of festivals.[1] The deity for whom it was celebrated is unknown;[2] if a ritual for grove-clearing recorded by Cato pertains to this festival, the invocation was deliberately anonymous (Si deus, si dea).[3] The dates of the Lucaria are recorded in the Fasti Amiterni, a calendar dating from the reign of Tiberius found at Amiternum (now S. Vittorino) in Sabine territory.[4]

The Augustan grammarian Verrius Flaccus[5] connected the Lucaria to the disastrous defeat of the Romans by the Gauls at the Battle of the Allia, which was fought on July 18. The festival, he says, was celebrated in the large grove between the Via Salaria and the Tiber river, where the Romans who survived the battle had hidden. The Via Salaria crossed the battlefield about 10 miles north of Rome.[6] The lucus thus would have been located on the Pincian Hill, which was later cultivated as gardens and leisure parks by Lucullus, Pompeius, Sallust and others.[7] This explanatory story has been compared to that of the Poplifugia, which also involved the Gallic sack of Rome.[8] The story may be more aetiological than historical.[9] The Lucaria suggests that grove veneration was a practice which the early Romans had in common with the Gauls.[10]

Like other "fixed holidays" (Neptunalia on July 23, when leafy huts were built as shelters against the hot summer sun and bulls were sacrificed.[14] Neptune embodied fresh as well as salt water among the Romans, and the collocation of festivals in July, including also the Furrinalia on the 25th, may express concerns for drought.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Varro, De lingua latina 6.3.
  2. ^ Kurt Latte, Römische Religionsgeschicte (C.H. Beck, 1992), p. 88.
  3. ^ Cato, On Agriculture 139; Robert E.A. Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 106.
  4. ^ Jörg Rüpke, Religion of the Romans (Polity Press, 2007, originally published in German 2001), p. 189
  5. ^ As recorded by Festus: Lucaria festa in luco colebant Romani, qui permagnus inter viam Salariam et Tiberim fuit, pro eo, quod victi e Gallis fugientes e praelio ibi se occultaverint.
  6. ^ William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), p. 182.
  7. ^ Fowler, Roman Festivals, p. 183.
  8. ^ Fowler, Roman Festivals, pp. 182–183.
  9. ^ Ken Dowden, European Paganism: The Realities of Cult from Antiquity to the Middle Ages (Routledge, 2000), p. 107.
  10. ^ Martin Henig, Religion in Roman Britain (Taylor & Francis, 1984, 2005), p. 15.
  11. ^ Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), pp. 38–39
  12. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.4.15.
  13. ^ According to Julius Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 6.18, the Gauls regularly reckoned time by nights rather than days: "They compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night" (spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum sed noctium finiunt; dies natales et mensum et annorum initia sic observant ut noctem dies subsequatur).
  14. ^ Sarolta A. Takács, Vestal Virgins, Sibyls, and Matrons: Women in Roman Religion (University of Texas Press, 2008), p. 53.
  15. ^ Robert Schilling, "Neptune," Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981), p. 138.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.