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The Challenges of Community Participation in Forest Development in Nepal

By Kumar, Nalini

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Book Id: WPLBN0000018335
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.8 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: The Challenges of Community Participation in Forest Development in Nepal  
Author: Kumar, Nalini
Language: English
Subject: Economics, Finance & business, World Bank.
Collections: Economics Publications Collection
Publication Date:
Publisher: The World Bank


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Kumar, N. (n.d.). The Challenges of Community Participation in Forest Development in Nepal. Retrieved from


Introduction: Nepal is a leader in engaging communities in forest resource protection and management. The country?s community forestry program is now more than two decades old and has helped regenerate substantial areas of degraded forests. During these two decades, the implementation of the program has not been smooth. In the absence of precedents, the country has had to learn through trial and error and find innovative solutions to meet challenges as they emerged. Most economic and social indicators put Nepal among the poorest countries in the world, with an estimated 40?50 percent of the population below the poverty line. Yet, in terms of pursuing a strategy of community participation in forest resource management, Nepal has outdone almost every other country. This thematic review has a twofold purpose. First, Nepal?s unique and long experience offers broad lessons for other countries that have just begun supporting community participation initiatives in forest protection and management. Second, it offers lessons pertinent to community-driven development (CDD), an approach rooted in community participation. CDD has attracted widespread borrower interest and has been supported by the World Bank as well as other multilateral and bilateral institutions. This Nepalese example illustrates the economy-wide impacts that a process of community participation in resource management has the potential to create. Several broad questions are addressed: How has Nepal been able to achieve its success with community forestry? Is its success likely to be sustainable? Is community participation an effective strategy for forest resource management? Why is it that, even in Nepal, the success of community forestry has been confined to the mid-hills and did not spread to the Terai region or the high mountains? What have been the major challenges of the first phase and what are the emerging challenges that the program faces during its second phase? How can the forest resource management effort contribute to poverty alleviation in the country? The thematic review is in six sections. Chapter 2 pulls together some important summary findings and lessons. Chapter 3 provides a background to the forest sector in Nepal. Chapter 4 looks at the special circumstances that have allowed community forestry to be successful in the mid-hills. Chapter 5 examines the first phase challenges. Chapter 6 explores the second phase challenges.


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